Irena Szewinska, the legendary world record breaker and Olympic champion of Poland, presents a detailed year’s sprint training program in five main phases and their tasks for female sprinters.
Stegeman (1981, p. 277) proposed that speed can be improved by strength training and by improving coordination with practice. This is the transfer of training effects hypothesis, that is, as capacities are altered they can be reeducated into movements in a sport which will result in performance improvements. For speed training the argument is as follows. The greater the load on an individual muscle, the slower will be the contractile velocity of that muscle.
by Jim Hiserman, C.S.C.S
The recent article on 400/800 lactate tolerance workouts for 400 sprinters brings up the differing opinions of SHORT TO LONG vs. LONG TO SHORT philosophies.
I am currently consulting former athletes who are now in the “higher volume, shorter rests, slower speeds builds strength” type programs. While the concept of “building speed/strength endurance” through this method of training for 400 meters has been strengthened by the Clyde Hart approach, it is necessary to re-visit the PROVEN PRINCIPLES of Speed Development that apply to the 400 meters as well.
THE MAIN EMPHASIS FOR IMPROVING SPEED AND QUICKNESS FOR TENNIS
Tennis singles involves continuous short bursts of speed forward, backward, diagonally, and left and right. Depending upon the style of play, a point may last as little as 5-10 seconds or as long as 60 seconds. Improving the speed and distance covered in the first three steps should be the major focus of a tennis speed improvement program.
The most widely used technical model of the running stride comprises three phases: the Drive, the Swing and the Lift. However; using this model, and emphasizing the development of strength to meet the aim of applying more force to the ground, many coaches neglect the neuro-physiological aspects of sprinting technique and may limit their athletes’ performance in the Maximum Velocity Phase of the 100 meters, known as the key to success in the event.
The purpose of this study was to examine the kinematics of sprinting under assisted (or overspeed) and resisted conditions as compared to normal sprinting during the acceleration and top-speed phases of a sprint.
Various theories exist on the ideal model of periodization for sprinters. For the most part, two training models exist, the Eastern Model of Periodization and the Western Model of Periodization. The purpose of this paper will be to review literature detailing both models and make a judgment on which is the better of the two approaches.
The vitamin and herbal supplement industry is big business in this country with annual sales exceeding $23 billion and involving over 40,000 products. A 15-year old law permits supplements to enter the market without the approval of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). As a result, claims are often outrageously exaggerated and incorrect, and ingredients and product safety have not been determined. The FDA can act only after consumers become ill or a safety issue arises.
The hip extensors and the hip flexors are the strongest muscle groups within the lower extremity. The extensors are the primary movers, by acceleration, of the body’s center of gravity. The prime movers of the hips are also responsible for generating the most force during sprinting. Studies by Ralph Mann and others indicate that the bulk of forward propulsion and power generation in sprinting comes from the proximal musculature of the pelvis.
Resistance during the sprinting action in the form of weighted body suits (pants, shirts), sleds, parachutes, stretch cords, head winds, and staircase sprinting is commonly used in team sports. Studies examining the effects of such training on speed have revealed conflicting results and a number of concerns remain unanswered and are in need of attention by researchers.